Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Canterbury Tales, written by Chaucer, and Sir Gawain...

The Canterbury Tales, written by Chaucer, and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, written by an anonymous author, are both sophisticated fourteenth-century examples of medieval romance. Medieval romances captured the heart of their audiences as narratives and stories that featured a protagonist, often a knight, and dealt with religious allegories, chivalry, courtly love, and heroic epics. The concept of the knight emerged from the remnants of the Anglo-saxon literature and ideals and influence of the Christian religion and church. There is a distinct difference between the famous pagan heroic like Beowulf and the romantic medieval tales like Sir Gawain and the Green Knight of the Canterbury Tale. The Anglo-Saxon hero Beowulf exemplified†¦show more content†¦Sir Gawain and the Green Knight along with The Canterbury Tales features impressive knights that all boast a chivalric code. As Sir Gawain and the Green Knight unfolds, we readers are led to look beneath the attractive surfa ce of chivalry and question exactly what chivalry is through examples such as: Sir Arthur , Sir Gawain, the Green Knight, Palamon, and Arcite. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight begins with an extended idealized description of Arthur’s court; â€Å"The most noble knights known under Christ, / And the loveliest ladies that lived on earth ever, / And he the comeliest king, that that court holds. † (Marie, 51-53) The court is in the middle of its Christmas celebration, the knights and ladies are young-and well favored enjoying the pleasures of court life. However, there is a negative side to the youthful King Arthur, and his kingly whim who that desired a tale of â€Å"some suppliant came seeking some single knight / to join with him in jousting, in jeopardy each / to lay life for life and leave it to fortune.† (Marie, 96-99) Thereby implication the court and the romantic ideals they represent: a potentially damaging carelessness, a lack of stability, and responsibi lity. Authur’s court is initially regaled as: And your court and your company are counted the best, Stoutest under steel-gear on steeds to ride Worthiest of their works the whole world over, And peerless to prove in passages of arms, And courtesy here is carried to its height, (Marie,Show MoreRelatedLiterature Reflecting Religious and Political Ideals3433 Words   |  14 PagesChristian knight and holy warrior by the time the story was written down in the 9th Century. His mission is also Christ-like in that he sacrifices his life to defend the people against Grendel and his mother the Dragon or Devil. The Green Knight is a story from the High Middle Ages (1000-1300 AD), which is commonly thought of as an age of chivalry and knights in shining armor. In popular culture, this remains the most popular and persistent image of medieval culture and society. Sir Gawain was theRead More Womens Roles in Epic of Gilgamesh, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and The Canterbury Tales1481 Words   |  6 PagesChanging Womens Roles in The Epic of Gilgamesh, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and The Canterbury Tales Over the course of time, the roles of men and women have changed dramatically. As women have increasingly gained more social recognition, they have also earned more significant roles in society. This change is clearly reflected in many works of literature, one of the most representative of which is Plautuss 191 B.C. drama Pseudolus, in which we meet the prostitute Phoenicium. Although theRead MoreHistory of British Literature3343 Words   |  14 PagesCulture: by 15th century England had become a nation with the sense of separate identity and indigenous culture 1362- English became the official language in court and was also used in schools. 14thc. witnessed the first original literary works written in English. Middle English literature English literature of the medieval period, c.1100 to c.1500. Background The Norman conquest of England in 1066 traditionally signifies the beginning of 200 years of the domination of French in English lettersRead MoreDiscuss the Relationship Between Appearance and Reality and the Issues This Involves in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and ‘the Franklin’s Tale’.2721 Words   |  11 PagesDiscuss the relationship between appearance and reality and the issues this involves in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and ‘The Franklin’s Tale’. Judging a Book by its Cover The appearance of a situation, person or place may sometimes be at total odds with its actual reality, and thus change previous conceptions held of a thing or person. In Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and Chaucer’s The Franklin’s Tale, not only are there illusions throughout the tale’s themselves, but the reality of theRead More Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Essay1527 Words   |  7 PagesSir Gawain and the Green Knight Sir Gawain and the Green Knight was written in the late fourteenth century. Its author was unknown, but he or she was a contemporary of Chaucer. The poem consists of two plots: one is the challenge between Sir Gawain and the Green Knight in a beheading game, and the other is the temptation of Sir Gawain by a lady from a beautiful castle. The outcome of the challenge as well as the life of Gawain is made to depend--though Gawain does not know it--on his behaviorRead MoreGeoffrey Chaucers Style Of Literature956 Words   |  4 Pagesliterary world in a new way. During these times, there were expectations of all people, Knights were to act with chivalry and dignity, Monks were to solely practice faith and religion, and ordinary people were to have morals. These expectations were just a few of the things that would be considered Anglo Saxon beliefs, the most popular form of literature of this time. The poems, plays, epics and pieces of literature written during the Medieval times all con tained the Anglo Saxon traits, which there are manyRead MoreSir Gawain And The Green Knight1591 Words   |  7 Pages  Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is a late 14th-century Middle English chivalric romance. It is one of the best known Arthurian stories, and is of a type known as the beheading game. The Green Knight is interpreted by some as a representation of the Green Man of folklore and by others as an allusion to Christ. Written in stanzas of alliterative verse, each of which ends in a rhyming bob and wheel, it draws on Welsh, Irish and English stories, as well as the French chivalric tradition. It is anRead MoreReligion Throughout British Literature2205 Words   |  9 PagesWith all the books read in class this year, there has been some type of influence on the way each story was written. From Beowulf to Paradise Lost, there have been many, mostly religious, persuasions in the style and approach to writing of the novel. These influences, whether theyre religious or cultur al or psychological, have a deep impact on the story and are reflective of a literary time period. The differences in each story show the changes in the culture, religion, or the way people thoughtRead MoreWomen As Represented In Society By Anita Kay OPry-Reynolds-Renolds938 Words   |  4 Pagesdifferent Medieval works of literatures to help support her thesis. OPry-Reynolds uses some details from Beowulf, Lancelot, Knight of the Cart, and Sir Gawain and The Green Knight to show the different gender roles between men and women. The details OPry-Reynolds finds from the different Medieval literatures in her essay are not supported in The Prologue to The Canterbury Tales and The Wife of Bath. Anita Kay OPry-Renolds Men and Women as Represented in Medieval Literature in Society explainsRead MoreThe Changing Face of Love in English Literature1528 Words   |  7 Pageshave studied have written about love in its many forms, from the cerebral to the visceral and they have used this compl ex emotion to propel their stories and their sonnets. As we progress forward in time we see a distinct change in the freedom writers had as they addressed this theme and a change in the way men perceived love. Chaucer explores love as a motivating theme in â€Å"The Knight’s Tale† within his â€Å"Canterbury Tales†. Arcita and Palamon are the main characters within this tale and their actions

Night Creature Crescent Moon Chapter 31 Free Essays

string(72) " Then that last night, I lost my temper, shouted at him, and we fought\." Adam came into the house as I sat up, careful not to disturb the sleeping child. Without a word, Adam bent and lifted Luc into his arms. Equally silent he walked out of the house. We will write a custom essay sample on Night Creature: Crescent Moon Chapter 31 or any similar topic only for you Order Now I expected he’d walked out of my life forever. What was it about the Ruelles that made me feel things I never had before and never expected to again? What was it about a silent man and a chatty boy that made a foolish, lonely cryptozoologist long for a life she’d never wanted? This wasn’t me. To ache for a child. To contemplate loving again with the same depth I’d once loved before. To consider a future so far gone from the one I’d planned as to be unfathomable. I had to be under a spell. The thought gave me pause. Was I behaving so oddly, thinking so strangely, longing so deeply because of†¦ magic? The very idea should make me laugh, but after what I’d seen since coming to the Crescent City, laughing was the furthest thing from my mind. There was only one person I trusted here, and conve-niently that person knew magic. I grabbed my bag and my keys and drove to town. Bourbon Street was hopping. I heard the music, saw the lights, from several blocks away. I was tempted to take a detour and soothe my problems with a zombie. But I figured the way things were going, I’d actually run into a zombie. Cassandra opened the door before I even knocked. â€Å"How did you know I was here?† She lifted a brow. â€Å"I peeked through the window.† â€Å"Oh.† â€Å"Lock the door. You need a drink.† Right again. Sometimes I thought she was more than a little psychic. Within minutes I sat across from her at the kitchen table, sipping from a glass of something complete with a tiny umbrella. I took a big swig. â€Å"Fruity.† Probably had twelve types of alcohol. Just what I needed. I took another glug. â€Å"What do you know about love potions? Maybe a charm or a spell?† Cassandra took a ladylike sip and set down her glass. â€Å"More than you, I suspect. Why?† I wasn’t sure. Adam had insisted he couldn’t love me, didn’t want me to love him. What good would a love spell do? But Luc was another matter. The child wanted a mother. If I fell hopelessly in love with him, wouldn’t I take the job? I couldn’t bring myself to tell Cassandra about the boy. Adam didn’t want anyone to know. And while I trusted Cassandra with my life – had on several occasions already – it wasn’t right for me to trust her with Luc’s. He wasn’t mine to give. â€Å"You’re talking about Adam,† she murmured. â€Å"You love him?† ‘I something him,† I muttered. â€Å"I don’t like it.† â€Å"Just because you don’t want to love the man doesn’t mean you’ve been put under a spell. In truth, if you had been, you’d be thrilled about it That’s part of the magic.† I took a huge slurp, and the end of the paper umbrella went up my nose. Sneezing, I tossed it aside. â€Å"You better slow down,† Cassandra said. â€Å"You’re going to be smashed.† â€Å"OK.† I’d been right about the twelve kinds of alcohol. Right now, every one of them zipped through my bloodstream, both relaxing and revving me. My cheeks felt on fire. â€Å"I love my husband.† â€Å"Shouldn’t you say loved?’ â€Å"I don’t know how to stop,† I whispered. â€Å"He still feels alive to me.† I touched my chest. â€Å"Right here.† â€Å"Maybe that’s why you saw him in your dream. In your heart he’s still alive. You need to let him go.† â€Å"No.† The idea of letting Simon go, of giving up, giving in, going on, was too much for me. Maybe that was why I had come up with the notion that my feelings for Adam had been induced by voodoo. They couldn’t be real, because if they were, I didn’t love Simon anymore. And if my love for him died, then so did he. I know, I know, he already had. But when was love ever rational? I took another swig of courage before blurting what I’d been wondering since I’d seen Simon at the window. â€Å"Could you raise him?† I stared at my fingers, clutched together in my lap. Cassandra took a quick, sharp breath and held it. Afraid she’d pass out if she didn’t breathe, afraid I’d panic if she didn’t speak, or maybe if she did, I glanced up, then right back down again. The sorrow, the pity, in her eyes made me want to crawl under the table and stay there. â€Å"I’m not that powerful,† she said softly. â€Å"Not yet.† Something in her voice made me tense – hope and fear at war. â€Å"But you might be soon?† â€Å"Someday, perhaps. But even if I was, I couldn’t raise Simon.† â€Å"Why not?† â€Å"How long has he been gone?† â€Å"Four years.† She reached across the table and took my hand. â€Å"He wouldn’t be the same, Diana.† â€Å"I don’t care.† â€Å"You would care. Dead is dead; there’s no going back.† â€Å"There is – you said so yourself. There are zombies. They’re real.† â€Å"But they aren’t alive. They aren’t the same people. They aren’t even people. You want to rip Simon out of the afterlife, reanimate his disintegrating body, have him look at you with hollow, lifeless eyes? Wonder why he’s here? Ask who you are?† â€Å"He’d know me.† â€Å"Maybe.† â€Å"I miss him.† â€Å"I know.† She squeezed my hand, and I met her gaze once more. â€Å"Simon didn’t have to die. I could have saved him.† Cassandra stared at me for several seconds. â€Å"So that’s what this is about? Guilt?† Now that I’d started talking, I couldn’t seem to stop. â€Å"I didn’t believe him when he said he’d found a werewolf. Again. I was so sick of his wild-goose chases. We went here; we went there. He saw something and every single time, when I got there, there was nothing. Everyone thought he was crazy.† I took a deep breath and admitted my secret shame: â€Å"I started to think so, too. Then that last night, I lost my temper, shouted at him, and we fought. You read "Night Creature: Crescent Moon Chapter 31" in category "Essay examples" He stormed out alone. The next thing I knew, he was dead.† â€Å"I missed the part where your going with him could have saved him.† I shot her a glare. â€Å"I’d have saved him.† How I wasn’t sure, but I’d have tried. And if I’d failed, I’d be dead, too. Sometimes – hell, most times until I came here – I wished that I was. â€Å"He’s gone now,† she said, â€Å"and you need to move on. Quit sabotaging your chance at a new life by clinging to the old one.† â€Å"I have to find the loup-garou. Prove that Simon wasn’t crazy. Clear his name.† â€Å"All right Then maybe you can move on.† I considered her words, which were an echo of my own earlier thoughts. Maybe I could. Except – â€Å"How do I know if what I feel is real?† Cassandra sighed. â€Å"You really believe Ruelle put a hex on you to make you love him? I thought it was all sex, all the time.† â€Å"Not all the time,† I muttered, though she did have a point. â€Å"There might be a way to discover the truth.† â€Å"How?’ â€Å"A ceremony.† â€Å"Voodoo?† She lifted a brow and didn’t bother to answer. â€Å"What do I have to dor â€Å"Come to the temple. We’ll ask the has if you’re under a love spell.† â€Å"That works?† â€Å"So far, whatever I’ve asked, they’ve answered.† I frowned. She was starting to scare me. â€Å"If they say you’re not being influenced by magic, will you quit fighting the feeling and tell the man you care?† I wasn’t sure. Adam had said he couldn’t love me, that I shouldn’t ask him to. â€Å"Diana?† Cassandra pressed. â€Å"Let’s just do whatever voodoo that you do, and then we’ll see.† â€Å"Promise you’ll give him a chance.† â€Å"What difference does it make to you?† She put her hands on her hips. â€Å"I’m not going to waste a perfectly good voodoo ceremony on someone who’s too stubborn to reap the benefits.† â€Å"OK. Fine. Let’s get it over with.† â€Å"Take a breath. Slow down. The temple is peaceful. You might enjoy your time there.† Instead of heading out the back door, Cassandra returned to the shop and picked up a wooden bowl. She proceeded to add items from her shelves, then turned toward the snake cage. â€Å"Whoa,† I said, my voice a bit slurred from the alcohol. â€Å"No snake.† â€Å"We need him for the ceremony.† â€Å"I hate snakes.† â€Å"Consider him Danballah.† â€Å"I know I’m going to be sorry I asked, but what’s Danballah?† â€Å"The Great Serpent. Father of the loos.† I recalled her earlier explanation. â€Å"A god.† â€Å"More of a spirit. In vodoun there was an original supreme being known as the Gran Met. When he finished his work and returned to the other worlds, he left the has behind to help the people.† I’d been raised Catholic, though I hadn’t practiced since I’d left my parents’ house. Nevertheless, all this talk about gods made me twitchy. â€Å"You don’t really believe this, do you?† Her sigh was aggrieved. â€Å"You can’t ask me to perform a voodoo ceremony for truth, then wonder if I believe.† I very nearly pointed out that I hadn’t asked her to do anything, but she was on a roll, so I let her go. â€Å"If I don’t believe, then what in hell am I doing here? For that matter, what are you?† â€Å"All right. You believe.† â€Å"Gotta believe in something,† Cassandra muttered, and shoved the bowl into my arms. I didn’t see it coming and bobbled the thing, nearly dropping it. â€Å"Hey!† She shot me a glare. â€Å"You wanna hold the snake?† â€Å"Nope.† I waved my hand. â€Å"Carry on.† She pulled Lazarus out of the cage, murmuring softly. He took one look at me and hissed. The feeling was mutual. â€Å"Think of the loas like saints.† Cassandra led the way from the shop, through her living area, and out the back door. â€Å"They’re a kind of bridge to the supreme being.† â€Å"I can see why the Catholic Church was so snarky about the whole voodoo thing. A snake spirit is a far cry from a saint† â€Å"Didn’t Saint Patrick charm the snakes out of Ireland?† â€Å"Watch it when you talk about Saint Patrick and Ireland,† I muttered. Cassandra spared me a smile. â€Å"When the slaves arrived they were baptized Catholic right off the boat, and their religion was outlawed, so they secretly combined the two and got – â€Å" â€Å"Vodoun.† â€Å"Bingo.† Behind Cassandra’s shop lay a partially enclosed courtyard filled with plants, flowers, and a fountain. The ground was hard-packed earth – no grass, no stones, no pavement. A door had been set in one wall; Cassandra opened it. â€Å"No lock?† I asked. â€Å"On a temple?† She flicked the light. â€Å"Besides, most people are too scared to come in here with me. They certainly wouldn’t come without me.† â€Å"Terrific,† I said, and followed. I stopped just inside the door. The room was so full of stuff, I didn’t know what to stare at first. Cassandra placed Lazarus in a cardboard box near a flat stone covered with candles and smaller, more colorful flat stones. She proceeded to light the wicks, and I continued to stare. Surrounding the stone were flowers, pebbles, tiny flags, and charms. The walls were decorated with brightly colored symbols: a cross, a heart, a snake, a box of some sort. Long, thin. â€Å"Is that a coffin?† I asked. â€Å"Mmm,† Cassandra said. â€Å"The drawings are veves. They act as magnets, to draw the loas to the earth. The coffin is the symbol of Baron Samedi. He is Saturday, the day of death.† â€Å"I’d think you would want to avoid that one instead of magnetically sucking him into your personal space.† â€Å"We’ve been over this.† She gave me a look that I recalled from my third-grade teacher – extreme annoyance from a very patient woman. â€Å"Death is powerful, and it isn’t necessarily a bad thing.† â€Å"Then why does everyone try so hard to escape it?† â€Å"It’s human nature to fear what we don’t understand. I try to see death as a beginning.† â€Å"Of what?† â€Å"Who knows?† She finished the candles and joined me. â€Å"A new plane, a different world, an adventure.† She could be right, but I’d rather wait as long as possible to find out. â€Å"The cross is for Legba,† she continued, â€Å"god of the sun and the way of all spiritual communication.† I could see why that would be handy. â€Å"The heart is Erzulie.† Cassandra met my gaze. â€Å"Goddess of the moon.† A warm wind seemed to brush my skin. I’d have thought I was imagining it, except the candles fluttered. â€Å"She likes you,† Cassandra whispered. â€Å"Will that help?† â€Å"Won’t hurt.† â€Å"What about the snake?† I glanced at the python on the wall, whose bright green eyes seemed to shine. â€Å"Danballah.† The snake god. Spirit. Saint Whatever. I should have known. â€Å"Now what?† I asked. â€Å"The ceremony brings the loas to earth; then we ask for guidance.† â€Å"How, exactly, do they come to earth?† Her gaze slid from mine. â€Å"They inhabit another living being.† For a second my brain refused to accept the information my ears had heard. But only for a second. â€Å"Possession? Are you nuts? That’s dangerous!† â€Å"Which is why I don’t take the ceremony lightly. It’s also why people are scared to come here. Word gets around.† â€Å"If you think I’m going to let some snake spirit possess me, you are off your rocker.† â€Å"I doubt Danballah would be interested in you. I was thinking more along the lines of – â€Å" She traced a finger through the heart, her touch smudging whatever had been used to draw the symbol on the wall. â€Å"Deesse de la lune,† she said. The candles fluttered again in a nonexistent wind. As I gazed into their wavering flame I murmured, â€Å"That just might work.† How to cite Night Creature: Crescent Moon Chapter 31, Essay examples

Night Creature Crescent Moon Chapter 31 Free Essays

string(72) " Then that last night, I lost my temper, shouted at him, and we fought\." Adam came into the house as I sat up, careful not to disturb the sleeping child. Without a word, Adam bent and lifted Luc into his arms. Equally silent he walked out of the house. We will write a custom essay sample on Night Creature: Crescent Moon Chapter 31 or any similar topic only for you Order Now I expected he’d walked out of my life forever. What was it about the Ruelles that made me feel things I never had before and never expected to again? What was it about a silent man and a chatty boy that made a foolish, lonely cryptozoologist long for a life she’d never wanted? This wasn’t me. To ache for a child. To contemplate loving again with the same depth I’d once loved before. To consider a future so far gone from the one I’d planned as to be unfathomable. I had to be under a spell. The thought gave me pause. Was I behaving so oddly, thinking so strangely, longing so deeply because of†¦ magic? The very idea should make me laugh, but after what I’d seen since coming to the Crescent City, laughing was the furthest thing from my mind. There was only one person I trusted here, and conve-niently that person knew magic. I grabbed my bag and my keys and drove to town. Bourbon Street was hopping. I heard the music, saw the lights, from several blocks away. I was tempted to take a detour and soothe my problems with a zombie. But I figured the way things were going, I’d actually run into a zombie. Cassandra opened the door before I even knocked. â€Å"How did you know I was here?† She lifted a brow. â€Å"I peeked through the window.† â€Å"Oh.† â€Å"Lock the door. You need a drink.† Right again. Sometimes I thought she was more than a little psychic. Within minutes I sat across from her at the kitchen table, sipping from a glass of something complete with a tiny umbrella. I took a big swig. â€Å"Fruity.† Probably had twelve types of alcohol. Just what I needed. I took another glug. â€Å"What do you know about love potions? Maybe a charm or a spell?† Cassandra took a ladylike sip and set down her glass. â€Å"More than you, I suspect. Why?† I wasn’t sure. Adam had insisted he couldn’t love me, didn’t want me to love him. What good would a love spell do? But Luc was another matter. The child wanted a mother. If I fell hopelessly in love with him, wouldn’t I take the job? I couldn’t bring myself to tell Cassandra about the boy. Adam didn’t want anyone to know. And while I trusted Cassandra with my life – had on several occasions already – it wasn’t right for me to trust her with Luc’s. He wasn’t mine to give. â€Å"You’re talking about Adam,† she murmured. â€Å"You love him?† ‘I something him,† I muttered. â€Å"I don’t like it.† â€Å"Just because you don’t want to love the man doesn’t mean you’ve been put under a spell. In truth, if you had been, you’d be thrilled about it That’s part of the magic.† I took a huge slurp, and the end of the paper umbrella went up my nose. Sneezing, I tossed it aside. â€Å"You better slow down,† Cassandra said. â€Å"You’re going to be smashed.† â€Å"OK.† I’d been right about the twelve kinds of alcohol. Right now, every one of them zipped through my bloodstream, both relaxing and revving me. My cheeks felt on fire. â€Å"I love my husband.† â€Å"Shouldn’t you say loved?’ â€Å"I don’t know how to stop,† I whispered. â€Å"He still feels alive to me.† I touched my chest. â€Å"Right here.† â€Å"Maybe that’s why you saw him in your dream. In your heart he’s still alive. You need to let him go.† â€Å"No.† The idea of letting Simon go, of giving up, giving in, going on, was too much for me. Maybe that was why I had come up with the notion that my feelings for Adam had been induced by voodoo. They couldn’t be real, because if they were, I didn’t love Simon anymore. And if my love for him died, then so did he. I know, I know, he already had. But when was love ever rational? I took another swig of courage before blurting what I’d been wondering since I’d seen Simon at the window. â€Å"Could you raise him?† I stared at my fingers, clutched together in my lap. Cassandra took a quick, sharp breath and held it. Afraid she’d pass out if she didn’t breathe, afraid I’d panic if she didn’t speak, or maybe if she did, I glanced up, then right back down again. The sorrow, the pity, in her eyes made me want to crawl under the table and stay there. â€Å"I’m not that powerful,† she said softly. â€Å"Not yet.† Something in her voice made me tense – hope and fear at war. â€Å"But you might be soon?† â€Å"Someday, perhaps. But even if I was, I couldn’t raise Simon.† â€Å"Why not?† â€Å"How long has he been gone?† â€Å"Four years.† She reached across the table and took my hand. â€Å"He wouldn’t be the same, Diana.† â€Å"I don’t care.† â€Å"You would care. Dead is dead; there’s no going back.† â€Å"There is – you said so yourself. There are zombies. They’re real.† â€Å"But they aren’t alive. They aren’t the same people. They aren’t even people. You want to rip Simon out of the afterlife, reanimate his disintegrating body, have him look at you with hollow, lifeless eyes? Wonder why he’s here? Ask who you are?† â€Å"He’d know me.† â€Å"Maybe.† â€Å"I miss him.† â€Å"I know.† She squeezed my hand, and I met her gaze once more. â€Å"Simon didn’t have to die. I could have saved him.† Cassandra stared at me for several seconds. â€Å"So that’s what this is about? Guilt?† Now that I’d started talking, I couldn’t seem to stop. â€Å"I didn’t believe him when he said he’d found a werewolf. Again. I was so sick of his wild-goose chases. We went here; we went there. He saw something and every single time, when I got there, there was nothing. Everyone thought he was crazy.† I took a deep breath and admitted my secret shame: â€Å"I started to think so, too. Then that last night, I lost my temper, shouted at him, and we fought. You read "Night Creature: Crescent Moon Chapter 31" in category "Essay examples" He stormed out alone. The next thing I knew, he was dead.† â€Å"I missed the part where your going with him could have saved him.† I shot her a glare. â€Å"I’d have saved him.† How I wasn’t sure, but I’d have tried. And if I’d failed, I’d be dead, too. Sometimes – hell, most times until I came here – I wished that I was. â€Å"He’s gone now,† she said, â€Å"and you need to move on. Quit sabotaging your chance at a new life by clinging to the old one.† â€Å"I have to find the loup-garou. Prove that Simon wasn’t crazy. Clear his name.† â€Å"All right Then maybe you can move on.† I considered her words, which were an echo of my own earlier thoughts. Maybe I could. Except – â€Å"How do I know if what I feel is real?† Cassandra sighed. â€Å"You really believe Ruelle put a hex on you to make you love him? I thought it was all sex, all the time.† â€Å"Not all the time,† I muttered, though she did have a point. â€Å"There might be a way to discover the truth.† â€Å"How?’ â€Å"A ceremony.† â€Å"Voodoo?† She lifted a brow and didn’t bother to answer. â€Å"What do I have to dor â€Å"Come to the temple. We’ll ask the has if you’re under a love spell.† â€Å"That works?† â€Å"So far, whatever I’ve asked, they’ve answered.† I frowned. She was starting to scare me. â€Å"If they say you’re not being influenced by magic, will you quit fighting the feeling and tell the man you care?† I wasn’t sure. Adam had said he couldn’t love me, that I shouldn’t ask him to. â€Å"Diana?† Cassandra pressed. â€Å"Let’s just do whatever voodoo that you do, and then we’ll see.† â€Å"Promise you’ll give him a chance.† â€Å"What difference does it make to you?† She put her hands on her hips. â€Å"I’m not going to waste a perfectly good voodoo ceremony on someone who’s too stubborn to reap the benefits.† â€Å"OK. Fine. Let’s get it over with.† â€Å"Take a breath. Slow down. The temple is peaceful. You might enjoy your time there.† Instead of heading out the back door, Cassandra returned to the shop and picked up a wooden bowl. She proceeded to add items from her shelves, then turned toward the snake cage. â€Å"Whoa,† I said, my voice a bit slurred from the alcohol. â€Å"No snake.† â€Å"We need him for the ceremony.† â€Å"I hate snakes.† â€Å"Consider him Danballah.† â€Å"I know I’m going to be sorry I asked, but what’s Danballah?† â€Å"The Great Serpent. Father of the loos.† I recalled her earlier explanation. â€Å"A god.† â€Å"More of a spirit. In vodoun there was an original supreme being known as the Gran Met. When he finished his work and returned to the other worlds, he left the has behind to help the people.† I’d been raised Catholic, though I hadn’t practiced since I’d left my parents’ house. Nevertheless, all this talk about gods made me twitchy. â€Å"You don’t really believe this, do you?† Her sigh was aggrieved. â€Å"You can’t ask me to perform a voodoo ceremony for truth, then wonder if I believe.† I very nearly pointed out that I hadn’t asked her to do anything, but she was on a roll, so I let her go. â€Å"If I don’t believe, then what in hell am I doing here? For that matter, what are you?† â€Å"All right. You believe.† â€Å"Gotta believe in something,† Cassandra muttered, and shoved the bowl into my arms. I didn’t see it coming and bobbled the thing, nearly dropping it. â€Å"Hey!† She shot me a glare. â€Å"You wanna hold the snake?† â€Å"Nope.† I waved my hand. â€Å"Carry on.† She pulled Lazarus out of the cage, murmuring softly. He took one look at me and hissed. The feeling was mutual. â€Å"Think of the loas like saints.† Cassandra led the way from the shop, through her living area, and out the back door. â€Å"They’re a kind of bridge to the supreme being.† â€Å"I can see why the Catholic Church was so snarky about the whole voodoo thing. A snake spirit is a far cry from a saint† â€Å"Didn’t Saint Patrick charm the snakes out of Ireland?† â€Å"Watch it when you talk about Saint Patrick and Ireland,† I muttered. Cassandra spared me a smile. â€Å"When the slaves arrived they were baptized Catholic right off the boat, and their religion was outlawed, so they secretly combined the two and got – â€Å" â€Å"Vodoun.† â€Å"Bingo.† Behind Cassandra’s shop lay a partially enclosed courtyard filled with plants, flowers, and a fountain. The ground was hard-packed earth – no grass, no stones, no pavement. A door had been set in one wall; Cassandra opened it. â€Å"No lock?† I asked. â€Å"On a temple?† She flicked the light. â€Å"Besides, most people are too scared to come in here with me. They certainly wouldn’t come without me.† â€Å"Terrific,† I said, and followed. I stopped just inside the door. The room was so full of stuff, I didn’t know what to stare at first. Cassandra placed Lazarus in a cardboard box near a flat stone covered with candles and smaller, more colorful flat stones. She proceeded to light the wicks, and I continued to stare. Surrounding the stone were flowers, pebbles, tiny flags, and charms. The walls were decorated with brightly colored symbols: a cross, a heart, a snake, a box of some sort. Long, thin. â€Å"Is that a coffin?† I asked. â€Å"Mmm,† Cassandra said. â€Å"The drawings are veves. They act as magnets, to draw the loas to the earth. The coffin is the symbol of Baron Samedi. He is Saturday, the day of death.† â€Å"I’d think you would want to avoid that one instead of magnetically sucking him into your personal space.† â€Å"We’ve been over this.† She gave me a look that I recalled from my third-grade teacher – extreme annoyance from a very patient woman. â€Å"Death is powerful, and it isn’t necessarily a bad thing.† â€Å"Then why does everyone try so hard to escape it?† â€Å"It’s human nature to fear what we don’t understand. I try to see death as a beginning.† â€Å"Of what?† â€Å"Who knows?† She finished the candles and joined me. â€Å"A new plane, a different world, an adventure.† She could be right, but I’d rather wait as long as possible to find out. â€Å"The cross is for Legba,† she continued, â€Å"god of the sun and the way of all spiritual communication.† I could see why that would be handy. â€Å"The heart is Erzulie.† Cassandra met my gaze. â€Å"Goddess of the moon.† A warm wind seemed to brush my skin. I’d have thought I was imagining it, except the candles fluttered. â€Å"She likes you,† Cassandra whispered. â€Å"Will that help?† â€Å"Won’t hurt.† â€Å"What about the snake?† I glanced at the python on the wall, whose bright green eyes seemed to shine. â€Å"Danballah.† The snake god. Spirit. Saint Whatever. I should have known. â€Å"Now what?† I asked. â€Å"The ceremony brings the loas to earth; then we ask for guidance.† â€Å"How, exactly, do they come to earth?† Her gaze slid from mine. â€Å"They inhabit another living being.† For a second my brain refused to accept the information my ears had heard. But only for a second. â€Å"Possession? Are you nuts? That’s dangerous!† â€Å"Which is why I don’t take the ceremony lightly. It’s also why people are scared to come here. Word gets around.† â€Å"If you think I’m going to let some snake spirit possess me, you are off your rocker.† â€Å"I doubt Danballah would be interested in you. I was thinking more along the lines of – â€Å" She traced a finger through the heart, her touch smudging whatever had been used to draw the symbol on the wall. â€Å"Deesse de la lune,† she said. The candles fluttered again in a nonexistent wind. As I gazed into their wavering flame I murmured, â€Å"That just might work.† How to cite Night Creature: Crescent Moon Chapter 31, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Is The Duchess of Malfi about love or power Essay Example

Is The Duchess of Malfi about love or power Paper In the play The Duchess of Malfi, John Webster explores several themes which include both love and power, and in this instance both appear to be inextricably linked. For these reasons, one cannot define whether power or love is the defining essence of the play, but it can be argued as to which one is predominant. The only characters who appear to encapsulate any kind of true love are foremost Antonio and the Duchess, whose relationship is maintained for a substantial period before it is thwarted by the corruption of their surroundings. The theme of power, however, is far more complicated in that each character experiences the use of power, or becomes a victim as a result of the abuse of power. This includes the concept of power between men and women, those of different social statuses, and the use of knowledge as a tool to gain power, mainly through secrecy. The main conflict of power is shown in the relationships between the Duchess and her brothers. Webster explores the idea of male dominance over women in the way in which the Duchess brothers are so controlling of her, and condescending towards her. With Ferdinand in particular, this idea is reinforced as he is portrayed to have a fair amount of power, and also eager to maintain the power which he has. We will write a custom essay sample on Is The Duchess of Malfi about love or power specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Is The Duchess of Malfi about love or power specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Is The Duchess of Malfi about love or power specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer He speaks with others tongues, and hears mens suits With others ears; will seem to sleep o th bench Only to entrap offenders in their answers. What is particularly unusual about these relationships is the way in which the Duchess persistently challenges all the authorities that her brothers try to impose on her. In this particular case, she is doing it for the sake of love, which reinforces the idea that power and love are indeed linked. As her brothers try to convince her that marrying again would be foolish, not only does she disregard what they say, but she also defends her own wishes. Diamonds are of most value, They say, that have past through most jewelers hands. Whores, by that rule, are precious. Her attempt to convince her brothers otherwise shows great character and determination, which was highly unusual for women of those times. Later on in the play when the Duchess brothers are aware of her sexual activity (which they assume is out of wedlock), they both discuss what they want to do with her. I could kill her now. Their discussion not only envisions the idea that they are using the power that they have been given, but in a more physical aspect, their masculine power against her feminine independence. This struggle of power between the siblings is kept on the surface throughout the play, as the brothers continuously try to control the Duchess, yet she remains persistent in challenging and disobeying them. Another exploration of power is through the secrecy involved in the play, and how the characters effectively gain a certain amount of power by knowing something that other characters dont. The secret relationship between Antonio and the Duchess gives them both power in terms of its effect on the other characters, particularly Ferdinand. Antonio has a certain amount of power over Ferdinand as the relationship is making him angry, yet he has the power to stop it. Bosola also tries to use knowledge to his advantage as he hopes that in exchange for the spying he does for Ferdinand, he will receive not only power, but also respect. Throughout the play, love never appears to come into its own form as power does, but it is always tainted with the corruption of the society; the only real love between any two characters has to be hidden for many years for fear of life. Even when the theme of love is more explicit to the audience, it is still mixed with the theme of power. At the beginning of the play when the Duchess is trying court Antonio, Webster not only explores once again the concept of power between men and women, but also the boundaries created by social status. The Duchess clearly goes against her brothers wishes by marrying again, but she furthers her violation by marrying someone of a lower social status i.e. Antonio, a steward. Sir, this goodly roof of yours, is too low built; I cannot stand upright int nor discourse, Without I raise it higher; raise yourself. In this instance, the Duchess is literally raising Antonio, but metaphorically raising his social status to her level, although this does still not comply with her brothers standards. It is also particularly ironic that the Duchess uses secrecy for the sake of love when she asks Cariola to hide, and thus make their meeting a wedding ceremony. Good dear soul, Leave me; but place thyself behind the arras, Where thou mayst overhear us. This is the only instance in the play whereby secrecy is used with good intentions, as opposed to the usual web of deception that surrounds the other characters. Of the few female characters, Julia plays an important role in emphasising the difference between love and lust. She is similar to the Duchess in that she is in part of a secret relationship, but her intentions are different to those of the Duchess, as her relationship is with a married man out of wedlock. This contrast is once again emphasised at the end, when it is apparent that Julia dies for lust, whereas the Duchess dies for love. Towards the end of the play, when the Duchess has her final disputes with her brother before her death, it almost seems like a battle of love against power. One instance where perhaps love does take precedence over power is when Ferdinand has finally discovered who has fathered her children, and instead of killing her, he tells her to kill herself. Die then, quickly! Ferdinand clearly has the power and motivation to kill the Duchess, yet he refrains from doing so, perhaps because his love for her is too strong. Before the battle comes to its eventual end whereby love loses, and the Duchess is killed, she still manages to maintain her power and dignity to the very end of her life, showing her determined and strong character. I am Duchess of Malfi still. The question of whether the play is about love or power can never be answered, as it can never be only one of them. It would initially appear that power is dominant, as all the love is destroyed, and even those who hold power are brought to their deaths, drowning in their own corruption and greed. Only one relationship in the play shows true love, and this leads to the ultimate death of all of the leading characters. However, it is also important to note the effect each theme has on the other, and how they complement each other.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

15 Part-Time Jobs That Pay More Than $40 per Hour (And How to Get Them)

15 Part-Time Jobs That Pay More Than $40 per Hour (And How to Get Them) When you think part-time, you might think of some of the classics: retail, food service, babysitting. In reality, there are tons of part-time opportunities out there- many of which can be pretty lucrative, if you have the right skill set (or are willing to pick it up). Let’s look at some of the best-paying part-time gigs out there. 1. TutorTutors provide extra academic help for students, whether it’s in a specific subject area at school or prepping for standardized tests. As college entrance gets more and more competitive, more students and their parents are looking to hire academic helpers. Depending on the student’s needs and the tutor’s level of expertise, tutors can command anywhere from $15 to $200 an hour (particularly for specialized test prep, like SAT and grad school entrance exams).What you’ll need: Knowledge and a track record of grades, high test scores, etc. If you’re still bursting with pride over your near-perfect SATs, you mig ht be able to put that savvy to work by the hour.2. Personal TrainerIf your ideal version of â€Å"the office† involves the clank of free weights and orderly rows of treadmills, becoming a personal trainer could be a good and flexible option for you. Personal trainers meet one on one with clients by the hour, developing and implementing fitness plans. Personal trainers can earn up to $50 an hour.What you’ll need: Physical fitness, for starters- clients tend to want someone who can lead by example. Depending on where you live, you may also need to become certified.3. Makeup ArtistIf you’re creative and know your way around an eyeshadow palette, being a freelance makeup artist offers a flexible hourly job that can pay anywhere from $13 – $40+ per hour. Per the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, makeup artists are the highest-paid workers in the cosmetology industry.What you’ll need: Some states require that makeup artists be licensed, so you’ll need to pay close attention to your state’s requirements. You can also train to become a makeup artist at a licensed cosmetology school. You might also want to consider relocating, if you don’t already live in a big metro area- large cities like New York, Los Angeles, and Chicago have the highest-paid makeup artists.4. Translator/InterpreterParlez-vous francais? As we start to think more globally, people who can ease communication and cultural transitions will be in huge demand. Companies (especially those with international offices) may employ translators directly, or use a third-party agency that matches qualified translators with particular jobs. Translators can earn up to $50 an hour, depending on the complexity of the project.What you’ll need: fluency in at least one language other than English, with very strong grammar and syntax skills.5. Therapist/Life CoachBecause therapy is often appointment-based, that gives the therapist flexibility to practice full- or part-time. Whether it’s counseling, life coaching, or social work, client appointments can fetch $45-$150 an hour.What you’ll need: a degree in psychology, counseling, or social work (depending on your field), plus potential licensing, depending on your state’s requirements.6. Freelance WriterWebsites, publications, agencies, publishers- they all need content, and talented writers to produce it. Think outside the magazine, too. Many companies need part-time writers to create in-house materials, instruction manuals, etc. Technical writers are especially in demand, and can command the high end of the $33-$75 per hour spectrum. Freelance writers are available on a project basis to write and edit various materials.What you’ll need: Strong written communication skills, and a lot of self-starting initiative/self-marketing skills.7. Adjunct ProfessorLike tutoring, this is another great part-time avenue if you have very specific subject expertise or experienc e. Being an adjunct faculty member at a local college or an online school lets you teach classes on a part-time basis. Adjunct teaching jobs often let you work your â€Å"day† job and teach about it at night, or leaving your days flexible for other life priorities.What you’ll need: Either a degree in your field or extensive experience working in it. You should also have good communication and people skills, because working with students can require a lot of problem solving and translating complicated concepts for people who haven’t seen them before.8. Massage TherapistA massage therapist is another appointment-based service provider who can set up a very flexible part-time job with strong hourly rates. You can work for a spa or healthcare facility, or set up shop as a roving masseur (have folding massage table and essential oils, will travel). Demand for massage therapists is growing as it becomes an accepted part of many health and wellness plans. Experienced m assage therapists can make up to $60 per hour.What you’ll need: Completion of an accredited training program. A degree is not typically necessary, but classes in anatomy, physiology, and other sciences definitely helps. Many states require that massage therapists be licensed, so be sure you’re up on your state’s own requirements.9. App/Software DeveloperIf you think you’re sitting on the next Candy Crush, you should be all set for life. But realistically, most app and software developers work on a part-time, project basis while they have other tech jobs. Developing on the side can be a very lucrative moonlighting opportunity, with rates that range from $30-$60 per hour.What you’ll need: A degree in computer science or software engineering isn’t absolutely essential, but it’s an extremely helpful foundation. You’ll also need excellent coding skills, as well as knowledge about UI design, programming languages, basic computer back end knowledge, and general market knowledge.10. Fitness InstructorLike personal trainers, fitness class instructors (yoga, pilates, Zumba, etc.) can often set their own schedule, aligning classes and teaching appointments with other life obligations. While many teachers start at around $20 an hour, more experienced and established teachers can command $40 an hour for their services.What you’ll need: Certification definitely gives you an edge here, as does experience with whatever fitness specialty you want to teach. Expertise is what builds a student base and increases your hourly earning potential.11. BartenderThis might be the classic high-paying part-time job, one you can do on nights and weekends. While the hourly salary for bartenders is on par with other food service jobs (read: not astronomical), there’s a huge potential for tips that drives up the hourly income to anywhere from $10-$75, depending on the bar, the customer base, and how many times you’ve s een the movie Cocktail. (Kidding on the last one- I don’t recommend throwing around bottles of tequila unless you’re a) Tom Cruise; or b) really know what you’re doing.)What you’ll need: Right now, the trend is â€Å"mixology† over traditional sud-slinging, so taking a bartending/mixology course to learn how to make cocktails can help you develop a range of signature drinks- and a loyal customer base. You’ll also need to be over 21.12. Rideshare DriverThis is another one that prioritizes hustle over a set schedule. Drivers for ridesharing services (like Uber and Lyft) can earn up to $30 an hour, plus tips.What you’ll need: A driver’s license and a car that’s clean, presentable, and in good working order.13.  Web DesignerThis is a part-time job you can do from literally anywhere (assuming there’s wifi). Web designers create and maintain websites for clients. And those with advanced skills in graphic design and co mputer programming do best of all, along with a good dose of self-marketing ability and business savvy. Web designers can earn $15-$75 per hour, depending on the projects and experience.What you’ll need: Graphic design know-how, coding skills (particularly HTML), and a go-getting nature to develop a customer base are all essentials for a career in web design.14. Dog Walkerâ€Å"Neither rain nor snow nor gloom of night† stop the mail from being delivered, and they also don’t stop dogs from needing to get out and exercise while doing their business. Dog walkers often earn $15-$20 per dog per walk, and if you have multiple clients set up for half-hour or hour-long walks, hourly rates end up in the $15-$75 range.What you’ll need: Must love dogs (or at least tolerate them and be willing to clean up after them). A background in dog training or behavior is also helpful, since every dog has different needs and issues. Insurance and licensing are also a major plus for your dog walking resume, as clients are entrusting their furriest family members to your care.15. Business ConsultantIf you have a business background but need a flexible schedule, consulting may be the way to go. Consultants with specific expertise can apply their skills to projects or an ongoing relationship with different companies without being on the full-time hook. Top consultants can make $150-$300 per hour, depending on qualifications and experience. Sites like HourlyNerd can help hook you up with projects that match your expertise.What you’ll need: An advanced degree in business (typically an MBA or similar), and/or extensive expertise and experience in the field where you want to consult. You’re selling your knowledge and experience, so you’ll need to have a track record of both if you want to make big bucks as a consultant.Just because you’re looking for a flexible or part-time job doesn’t mean you have to sacrifice full-time money. If you have an extra dash of hustle and are willing to go out and develop the skills and training you need, these jobs can be a very lucrative way to create a customized work schedule for yourself.

Monday, March 2, 2020

The Treasure of the Aztecs

The Treasure of the Aztecs In 1519, Hernan Cortes and his greedy band of some 600 conquistadors began their audacious assault on the  Mexica (Aztec) Empire. By 1521 the Mexica capital city of  Ã¢â‚¬â€¹Tenochtitlan was in ashes, Emperor Montezuma was dead and the  Spanish were firmly in control of what they took to calling New Spain. Along the way, Cortes and his men collected thousands of pounds of gold, silver, jewels and priceless pieces of  Aztec art. Whatever became of this unimaginable treasure? The Concept of Wealth in the New World For the Spanish, the concept of wealth was simple: it meant gold and silver, preferably in easily negotiable bars or coins, and the more of it the better. For the Mexica and their allies, it was more complicated. They used gold and silver but primarily for ornaments, decorations, plates, and jewelry. The Aztecs prized other things far above gold: they loved brightly colored feathers, preferably from quetzals or hummingbirds. They would make elaborate cloaks and headdresses out of these feathers and it was a conspicuous display of wealth to wear one. They loved jewels, including jade and turquoise. They also prized cotton and garments like tunics made from it: as a display of power, Tlatoani Montezuma would wear as many as four cotton tunics a day and discard them after wearing them only once. The people of central Mexico were great merchants who engaged in trade, generally bartering goods with one another, but cacao beans were also used as a currency of sorts. Cortes Sends Treasure to the King In April of 1519, the Cortes expedition landed near present-day​  Veracruz: they had already visited the Maya area of Potonchan, where they picked up some gold and the invaluable interpreter Malinche. From the town they founded in Veracruz they made friendly relationships with the coastal tribes. The Spanish offered to ally themselves with these disgruntled vassals, who agreed and often gave them gifts of gold, feathers and cotton cloth. In addition, emissaries from Montezuma occasionally appeared, bringing great gifts with them. The first emissaries gave the Spanish some rich clothes, an obsidian mirror, a tray and jar of gold, some fans and a shield made from mother-of-pearl. Subsequent emissaries brought a gold-plated wheel six and a half feet across, weighing some thirty-five pounds, and a smaller silver one: these represented the sun and moon. Later emissaries brought back a Spanish helmet which had been sent to Montezuma; the generous ruler had filled the helm with gold dust as the Spanish had requested. He did this because he had been made to believe that the Spanish suffered from an illness which could only be cured by gold. In July of 1519, Cortes decided to send some of this treasure to the King of Spain, in part because the king was entitled to a fifth of any treasure found and in part because Cortes needed the kings support for his venture, which was on questionable legal ground. The Spanish put together all of the treasures they had accumulated, inventoried it and sent much of it to Spain on a ship. They estimated that the gold and silver was worth about 22,500 pesos: this estimate was based on its worth as a raw material, not as artistic treasures. A long list of the inventory survives: it details every item. One example: the other collar has four strings with 102 red stones and 172 apparently green, and around the two green stones are 26 golden bells and, in the said collar, ten large stones set in gold... (qtd. in Thomas). Detailed as this list is, it appears that Cortes and his lieutenants held much back: it is likely that the king received only one-tenth of the treasure taken thus far. The Treasures of Tenochtitlan Between July and November of 1519, Cortes and his men made their way to Tenochtitlan. Along their way, they picked up more treasure in the form of more gifts from Montezuma, loot from the Cholula Massacre and gifts from the leader of Tlaxcala, who in addition entered into an important alliance with Cortes. In early November, the conquistadors entered Tenochtitlan and Montezuma made them welcome. A week or so into their stay, the Spanish arrested Montezuma on a pretext and kept him in their heavily defended compound. Thus began the plunder of the great city. The Spaniards continually demanded gold, and their captive, Montezuma, told his people to bring it. Many great treasures of gold, silver jewels and featherwork were laid at the feet of the invaders. Furthermore, Cortes asked Montezuma where the gold came from. The captive emperor freely admitted that there were several places in the Empire where gold could be found: it was usually panned from streams and smelted for use. Cortes immediately sent his men to those places to investigate. Montezuma had allowed the Spaniards to stay at the lavish palace of Axayacatl, a former tlatoani of the empire and Montezumas father. One day, the Spanish discovered a vast treasure behind one of the walls: gold, jewels, idols, jade, feathers and more. It was added to the invaders ever-growing pile of loot. The Noche Triste In May of 1520, Cortes had to return to the coast  to defeat the conquistador army of Panfilo de Narvaez. In his absence from Tenochtitlan, his hotheaded lieutenant Pedro de Alvarado ordered the massacre of thousands of unarmed Aztec nobles attending the festival of Toxcatl. When Cortes returned in July, he found his men under siege. On June 30, they decided they could not hold the city and decided to depart. But what to do about the treasure? At that point, it is estimated that the Spanish had amassed some eight thousand pounds of gold and silver, not to mention plenty of feathers, cotton, jewels and more.   Cortes ordered the kings fifth and his own fifth loaded onto horses and Tlaxcalan porters and told the others to take what they wanted. Foolish conquistadors loaded themselves down with gold: smart ones only took a handful of jewels. That night, the Spanish were spotted as they tried to flee the city: the enraged Mexica warriors attacked, slaughtering hundreds of Spaniards on the Tacuba causeway out of the city. The Spanish later referred to this as the Noche Triste or Night of Sorrows.The kings and Cortes gold was lost, and those soldiers who carried very much loot either dropped it or were slaughtered because they were running too slowly. Most of the great treasures of Montezuma were irrevocably lost that night. Return to Tenochtitlan and Division of Spoils The Spanish regrouped and were able to re-take Tenochtitlan a few months later, this time for good. Although they found some of their lost loot (and were able to squeeze some more out of the defeated Mexica) they never found all of it, despite torturing the new emperor, Cuauhtà ©moc. After the city had been retaken and it came time to divide the spoils, Cortes proved as skilled at stealing from his own men as he had in stealing from the Mexica. After setting aside the kings fifth and his own fifth, he began making suspiciously large payments to his closest cronies for weapons, services, etc. When they finally got their share, Cortes soldiers were dismayed to learn that they had earned less than two hundred pesos each, far less than they would have gotten for honest work elsewhere. The soldiers were furious, but there was little they could do. Cortes bought them off by sending them on further expeditions which he promised would bring in more gold and expeditions were soon on their way to the lands of the Maya in the south. Other conquistadors were given encomiendas: these were grants of vast lands with native villages or town on them. The owner theoretically had to provide protection and religious instruction for the natives, and in return the natives would work for the landowner. In reality, it was officially sanctioned slavery and led to some unspeakable abuses. The conquistadors who served under Cortes always believed that he had held back thousands of pesos in gold from them, and the historical evidence seems to support them. Guests to Cortes home reported seeing many bars of gold in Cortes possession. Legacy of the Treasure of Montezuma In spite of the losses of the Night of Sorrows, Cortes and his men were able to take a staggering amount of gold out of Mexico: only Francisco Pizarros looting of the Inca Empire produced a greater amount of wealth. The audacious conquest inspired thousands of Europeans to flock to the New World, hoping to be on the next expedition to conquer a rich empire. After Pizarros conquest of the Inca, however, there were no more great empires to find, although legends of the city of El Dorado persisted for centuries. It is a great tragedy that the Spanish preferred their gold in coins and bars: countless priceless golden ornaments were melted down and the cultural and artistic loss is incalculable. According to the Spanish who saw these golden works, Aztec goldsmiths were more skilled than their European counterparts. Sources Diaz del Castillo, Bernal. . Trans., ed. J.M. Cohen. 1576. London, Penguin Books, 1963. Levy, Buddy. . New York: Bantam, 2008. Thomas, Hugh. . New York: Touchstone, 1993.